On granted European patents in force when the Unified Patent Court (UPC) Agreement comes into effect, it is necessary to decide whether or not to file an "opt-out" of the jurisdiction of the UPC.
The UPC will automatically share jurisdiction with national courts over national validations of EP patents (even those granted before the UPC becomes operational) unless you actively "opt out". It will be possible to register opt-outs before the UPC Agreement comes into effect, by means of a so-called "sunrise provision".
As shown in the example below, if no such "opt-out" is filed, the UPC will share jurisdiction with the national courts in the States in which the UPC takes effect. However, this does not apply to all EPC countries. For example Spain (ES) is not participating in the UPC and Switzerland (CH), for example, is one of a number of EPC countries which are not Member States of the EU. As a result, jurisdiction for Spain and Switzerland and other non participating countries remains solely with their national courts (no shading).
If an opt-out is filed, jurisdiction for all of the validated countries remains solely with the national courts (see below).
Filing an opt-out does not preclude withdrawing the opt-out (effectively opting back in to the jurisdiction of the UPC), for example to start a European-wide action for infringement. However, if an action has started at the UPC (for example a central revocation action), it is not possible to file a belated opt-out to transfer the action into a national court. Further, once an infringement action has commenced at a national court, it is not possible to bring an action at the UPC for the same infringement, irrespective of whether the case is opted out or not.
Generally speaking, filing an opt-out appears to give patentees most flexibility whilst minimising risk. If an opt-out is filed, there is always the possibility of opting back into the jurisdiction of the UPC before the patent is enforced in Europe (assuming there has been no national litigation). However, in the meantime for an opted out patent there is no risk of a central revocation action being initiated at the UPC.
The only disadvantage to opting out would seem to be the procedural burden, and likely cost, of filing the opt-out, particularly if you are dealing with a large number of European patents. It will be necessary to identify the Patentee entitled to file the opt-out, and arrange for the opt-out to be filed.
There are, of course, very good reasons for using the UPC in preference to national courts (features of the UPC are outlined here). Patentees who are confident that they will want to use the UPC to the fullest extent possible may therefore decide that the administrative burden of filing opt-outs on their patent estate is not merited. Similarly, if the circumstances are such that the patent is unlikely to be ever litigated, there may be little point in filing an opt-out.
For more information please contact Martin Jackson