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We outline here the accounting steps which are necessary to calculate the Patent Box benefit.
We also present a simplified example calculation which may help you to estimate the amount of saving in UK Corporation Tax you might expect to make if you were to elect in to the Patent Box regime.
You will need to seek the advice of your corporate tax advisor for an accurate estimate of savings you might achieve and the best accounting approach to make the biggest saving.
The tax calculation required by the Patent Box legislation is complicated and specialist tax advice is required. We set out below the basic approach to assist with a preliminary assessment of the likely benefit to a company from the Patent Box.
In the calculation, it is not necessary to estimate the proportion of profit attributable to each qualifying IP right. Instead, the legislation requires the calculation of a routine return and a marketing deduction to be made. The routine return is defined in the legislation as 10% of the deductions on the balance sheet (excluding R&D expenses and capital expenditure). The routine return is subtracted from a profit attributed to the relevant IP income to give a qualifying relevant profit. The qualifying relevant profit is then reduced by the marketing deduction to take account of marketing costs in order to arrive at the relevant IP profits. The relevant IP profits are essentially the profits HMRC attributes to the existence of the qualifying IP right. Under the nexus rules, relevant IP profits have a relevant R&D fraction applied that reflects the proportion of relevant R&D expenditure by the company. In effect the Patent Box allows companies to pay a lower rate of UK Corporation Tax on the calculated relevant IP profits for which they contributed in R&D expenditure.
The chart below sets out the seven steps of the calculation to arrive at the proportion of relevant IP profits attributable to IP from which the UK Corporation Tax deduction available under the Patent Box can be calculated.
In the calculation, Step 1 requires relevant IP income and standard income to be determined and divided into a relevant IP income stream and a standard income stream. The total of these should be the total company income. This involves considering all income streams and apportioning them either as relevant IP income or as non-relevant IP (standard) income.
In Step 2, the relevant IP income stream is allocated to sub streams. It is required that IP right level streaming is chosen where income is apportioned against each Relevant IP Right, if possible. However, product or process level streaming or product family streaming are possible. These sub streams allow appropriate deductions and an R&D fraction to be applied in cases where there are multiple IP rights and/or multiple products or processes contributing to the IP income. The sub stream level will depend on how the IP rights correlate to the products or processes. A global stream may be used for small claims.
In Step 3, debits to be deducted in arriving at taxable trading profit are allocated to each relevant IP income sub stream. These include R&D expenditure or R&D tax credits.
In Step 4, after making the deductions from Step 3, a routine return is calculated and then further deducted to arrive at a qualifying relevant profit (QRP). In legislation, the routine return is set at 10% of routine expenditure. Routine expenditure does not include R&D expenditure.
In Step 5 appropriate marketing assets are determined as a marketing assets return and deducted. This step takes into account income that is derived from goodwill or branding, which is not eligible for Patent Box, as opposed to income from IP activities.
In Step 6 an R&D fraction is calculated and applied to each sub steam to arrive at a relevant profits (RP). In the calculation, the sum of direct R&D expenditure (D) and third party subcontracted R&D expenditure (S1), with a 30% “good R&D” uplift, is divided by the total expenditure, which consists of the “good R&D” expenditure (D + S1), plus connected party subcontracted R&D expenditure (S2) and IP acquisition cost (A). The R&D fraction is (D + S1) x 1.3/ (D + S1 + A + S2). However, the fraction is capped at 1.
In Step 7 the relevant profits with R&D fraction applied, for each stream, are added together to determine the total relevant profit attributable to the Patent Box.
The effect of the Patent Box legislation is to reduce the profit on which UK Corporation Tax is payable. The calculated total relevant profits (RP) from Step 7 are multiplied by the relevant main rate of Corporation Tax (MR) minus the special IP rate of Corporation Tax (IPR, 10%) divided by the main rate of Corporation Tax. i.e.:
This leads to a Patent Box deduction which is subtracted from the taxable profits before the amount of UK Corporation Tax is calculated at the relevant main rate.
Company A has trading turnover of GBP 1,000k, of which GBP 700k is from the sale of items covered by a two qualifying IP rights - GBP 500k for IPR1 and GBP 200k for IPR2. For IPR2, 20% of the profit is attributed to branding, as opposed to exploitation of IPR2.
Company A has tax deductible expenses of GBP 750k including GBP 50k for R&D. Total deductions for items relating to IPR1 and IPR2 are GBP 100k each. All the R&D for IPR1 was conducted in-house in a previous year. IPR2 was acquired for GBP 40k in a previous year with a further GBP 50k spent on R&D this year.
Without the Patent Box, the Corporation Tax computation would be as follows:
The Patent Box calculation is as follows:
Step 1 - Establish a standard income stream and a relevant IP income stream:
Standard income stream = GBP 300k
Relevant IP income stream = GBP 700k
Step 2 – Income for the two sub streams relating to the two IP rights, IRP1 and IPR2, is allocated:
Relevant IP income for IPR1 sub stream = GBP 500k
Relevant IP income for IPR2 sub stream = GBP 200k
Step 3 – Allocate debits to be deducted in arriving at taxable trading profit:
Deductions for IPR1 sub stream = GBP 100k non-R&D costs
Deductions for IPR2 sub stream = GBP 50k R&D costs, GBP 50k non-R&D costs
Step 4 – Net profit is reduced by the routine return to arrive at qualifying relevant profit (QRP). None of the deductions allocated in Step 3 to the IPR1 sub stream relate to R&D, so all are included in the routine return calculation:
IPR1 sub stream QRP = (500k – 100k) – (100k x 10%) = GBP 390k
Only GBP 50k of the deductions allocated in Step 3 to the IPR2 sub stream relate to non-R&D costs, so only these are included in the routine return calculation:
IPR2 sub stream QRP = (200k – 100k) – (50k x 10%) = GBP 95k
Step 5 – Deduct marketing assets return. All the profit for the IPR1 sub stream arises from exploitation of the IP, whereas 20% of profit for the IPR2 sub stream is attributable to branding:
IPR1 sub stream QRP with marketing deduction = 390k – 0 = GBP 390k
IPR2 sub stream QRP with marketing deduction = 95k – 19k = GBP 76k
Step 6 – Calculating and applying R&D fraction to arrive at relevant profits. IPR1 was developed completely in-house, so the R&D fraction for that sub stream is 1. On the other hand, the company spent 50k on in-house R&D and GBP 40k acquiring IPR2, so the R&D fraction = (50k x 1.3)/(50k + 40k) = 0.72
IPR1 sub stream RP = 390k x 1 = GBP 390k
IPR2 sub stream RP = 76k x 0.72 = GBP 55k
Step 7 – Combine the relevant profits, with R&D fraction applied, for each stream to arrive at total relevant profits:
Total relevant profits = 390k + 55k = GBP 445k
Finally the patent box deduction can be calculated. In this case, assuming 10% Patent Box rate and Corporation Tax rate of 19%: (445k x ((19-10)/19)) = GBP 211k
So the full rate of Corporation Tax is payable on the taxable trading profit (GBP 250k) minus the patent box deduction (GBP 211k) = GBP 39.
At a Corporation Tax rate of 19%, Corporation Tax of GBP 7k (GBP 57k x 19%) would be payable with the Patent Box, compared to GBP 48k without the Patent Box.
The calculation to arrive at the patent box deduction, requires the input of figures which some companies’ existing accounting procedures may not readily provide. In particular, this is likely to be the case where companies have multiple sources of income, some of which will be relevant IP income and some of which will be non-relevant IP income. Further, companies will need historic data regarding relevant R&D expenditure. Companies may therefore need to address this information deficit before they are able to determine likely Patent Box benefit. A detailed understanding of income and costs and how they are attributable between various income streams will be required.
01 February 2022
07 April 2022
The European Patent Office (EPO) uses oral proceedings as a means to bring pre-grant examination and post-grant opposition proceedings to a close. Oral proceedings will be appointed when the EPO considers it expedient to discuss outstanding issues face to face and/or at the request of any party to the proceedings. Consequently, the majority of EPO oppositions conclude with oral proceedings. Oral proceedings are rarer during pre-grant examination, but are typically appointed when the EPO intends to refuse the application. The Boards of Appeal also hold oral proceedings during the appeal procedure.
15 March 2022
This introductory briefing sets out what a biological deposit is, why a biological deposit may be needed, and basic requirements for making a biological deposit and relying on it in a patent application, with a particular focus on practice before the European Patent Office (EPO). A complementary briefing goes on to consider strategic aspects relating to biological deposits, including how it might be possible to remedy certain deficiencies relating to them.
15 March 2022
Introduction It is a fundamental requirement of patent law that, in exchange for a monopoly right, a patent must disclose the claimed invention in sufficient detail to allow a person skilled in the relevant technical field to reproduce the invention. This requirement is known as sufficiency of disclosure in European practice and enablement in the US. Therefore, a biological deposit is often made, usually with an International Depositary Authority (IDA) under the Budapest Treaty, to ensure that subject matter relating to biological material that is not publically available and/or which cannot be adequately described by other means, is sufficiently disclosed. The sufficiency/enablement...
15 March 2022
The European Patent Office (EPO) applies the same basic patentability criteria to antibodies as to other inventions. However, the high volume of applications in this area means that examiners have developed standardised approaches to assessing “antibody-specific” issues and these have been formalised in a dedicated section of the EPO’s Guidelines for Examination (G, 11, 5.6 ; issued March 2021 and revised March 2022). For an explanation of the basic approach adopted by the EPO, please see our related briefing Antibodies in the European Patent Office – Basic Principles or ask your usual J A Kemp contact. This briefing is intended...
15 March 2022
Over recent years, antibodies have become increasingly important as therapeutic drugs and large numbers of patent applications are filed in this area (>1000 granted by the European Patent Office (EPO) in 2019). Whilst patentability is assessed in the same way as for any other invention, the high volume of cases means that examiners have developed standardised approaches to assessing “antibody-specific” issues. These informal principles have been formalised in a dedicated section of the EPO’s Guidelines for Examination (G, 11, 5.6; issued March 2021 and revised in March 2022).
10 March 2022
What are SPCs? A Supplementary Protection Certificate (SPC) is an intellectual property right available for active ingredients of human and veterinary medicinal products requiring marketing authorisation 1 . The highest tribunal hearing disputes involving SPCs for EU member states is the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). Historically there have been numerous referrals to the CJEU on points of law relating to SPCs and this is expected to continue. Some of the key decisions are discussed below.
04 March 2022
Article 53(c) EPC specifies various patentability exclusions, including “diagnostic methods practised on the human or animal body”. This exclusion was considered in opinion G1/04 1 of the Enlarged Board of Appeal. The Enlarged Board identified two requirements that must both be met for a claim to be excluded from patentability. Firstly, the claimed method must include all the steps necessary to reach a medical decision on diagnosis. Secondly, all the technical steps of the method must require the presence of the human or animal body. This two-part test has subsequently been developed in several Technical Boards of Appeal decisions.
11 February 2022
Parameters are characteristic values of a product or process which are generally based on directly measurable properties. Typical examples of such features are the melting point of an alloy, the particle size of a powder or the performance of a material when subjected to stress in a particular way. Parameters can usefully be relied upon to define an invention before the EPO and they can be the most effective way of ensuring that the claims provide an adequate scope of protection for an inventor’s contribution. They are commonly used within the chemical field, but could find applicability in a wide variety...
09 February 2022
In 2021, reporting of the case law of the EPO Boards of Appeal in the field of IT & computer-implemented inventions has been dominated by two topics: the Enlarged Board’s decision relating to simulation and the rejection of two applications for inventions created by the artificial intelligence “DABUS” for failure to designate a human inventor. The simulation decision could well become the most important decision in this field as it endorses and summarises 20 years of case law since the well-known Comvik decision. The DABUS decisions follow the line taken in the UK and US that a human inventor must...
07 February 2022
In 2014, the EPO launched the Early Certainty initiative to speed up the patent granting process. This initiative has resulted in speedier establishment of search reports and a shorter examination procedure. As can be seen from the chart, the result is that the number of EP patents granted since the launch of the initiative has increased dramatically, and has remained high, relative to the number of patent applications filed. This is confirmed by our experience, in which a consistently short turnaround time has been noticeable, with an sizable portion of applications proceeding to grant directly after a response to the...
01 February 2022
The Patent Box makes the existence of a patent more attractive, whatever the breadth of the patent’s claim, so long as it covers the product (or process or service). A company may wish to optimise its strategies both for filing and prosecuting patent applications and for patent and patent application abandonments bearing in mind the tax savings available through the Patent Box.
01 February 2022
In order to benefit from the Patent Box, the beneficiary must be a qualifying company as defined in the legislation. We discuss here the requirements of a qualifying company .
01 February 2022
In order to benefit from the Patent Box, a company must hold or have an exclusive license to a qualifying IP right . Here we discuss the definition of a qualifying IP right .
01 February 2022
We discuss here issues relating to which income streams can qualify for the Patent Box. The Patent Box legislation defines what income streams count as relevant IP income. The calculation of relevant IP income is used in determining an amount deductable from the profits of the trade for the calculation of UK Corporation Tax liability. Determining the amount deductable from the profits of the trade leads to the amount of UK Corporation Tax due being equivalent to paying a rate of 10% on the relevant IP income (following certain deductions as explained in our separate Briefing “Patent Box – How...
01 February 2022
A company must elect in to the Patent Box regime in order to take advantage of the reduction in payable UK Corporation Tax. For some companies there may be advantages in delaying entry into the Patent Box. This Briefing looks at this issue.
28 January 2022
This document is intended to provide a brief introduction to Supplementary Protection Certificates (SPCs) for plant protection products. For more detailed information, please speak to your usual J A Kemp contact.
28 January 2022
This document is intended to provide a brief introduction to Supplementary Protection Certificates (SPCs) for medicinal products. For more detailed information, please see our full briefing on this topic.
19 January 2022
Which new ideas are worthy of a patent application? How should the applications be drafted and prosecuted? When should they be filed? Where in the world should they be filed? How long should applications and granted patents be maintained? A systematic answer to these questions is provided by a patent strategy. A patent strategy is part of an overall intellectual property (IP) strategy. It is usually the most important part of such a strategy for technology-based companies. The IP strategy should follow the company’s R&D strategy which in turn should follow its overall business strategy.
19 January 2022
The EPO operates a PCT service, PCT Direct, available to PCT applications which: name the European Patent Office as International Searching Authority; and claim priority from an earlier patent application which was searched by the EPO. If a new PCT application fulfils both of these criteria, the Applicant may file a “PCT Direct letter” providing informal comments with the application. The Search Examiner is obliged to consider those comments when preparing the International Search Report and the Written Opinion on patentability.
19 January 2022
A patent is a legal monopoly granted by a government in return for public disclosure of an invention. A granted patent gives the proprietor the right to prevent others using the invention in the territory to which the patent applies.
31 December 2021
Last year we provided a review of 21 EPO Board of Appeal cases relating to “antibody inventions” that were decided and published between January 2018 and January 2021. At the time, we observed that this relatively small number of decisions was consistent with our view that there had been relatively little case law in this field, despite the high number of applications and patents relating to antibodies that have been prosecuted at the EPO in the same period. Now considering the activity of the Boards of Appeal in the calendar year of 2021, we see some evidence that the trend...
10 December 2021
The issue of “double patenting” arises in the EPO when one applicant files two European patent applications with closely related claims and the same effective filing date. Two situations where double patenting commonly needs to be considered are: when the claims of a divisional application overlap with the claims of its parent application; and when a first European patent application claims priority from a second European patent application and the claims of the first application overlap with the claims of the second application.
08 October 2021
Introduction Supplementary Protection Certificate (SPCs) for medicinal products are intellectual property rights intended to compensate patent holders for the loss in effective patent term that results from the time taken to receive marketing authorisations for such products. An SPC takes effect at the expiry of the normal term of the patent on which it is based, and expires at whichever is the earlier of (i) 15 years from the first marketing authorisation in the EU/EEA, and (ii) 5 years from the expiry of the basic patent. Usually, therefore, the maximum term of an SPC is 5 years. However, the term of an...
21 September 2021
To what extent will a Supplementary Protection Certificate (SPC) for a biological product be considered to encompass closely-related alternatives such as biosimilars? This question will become increasingly important as more and more biological medicinal products, and their competing biosimilars, enter the marketplace. We expect to see the issue arise before the national courts of the EU and the UK, and ultimately – at least for EU member states – the question is likely to require a referral to the CJEU. Until that happens, however, arguably the best available guidance is that provided by the EFTA court in 2015, in its...
20 September 2021
An orphan drug, or orphan medicinal product, is a medicine that is developed to treat a rare disease, defined as a disease affecting a relatively small number of people as a proportion of the population. In recognition of the fact that the commercial market for such medicines is small, regulators have sought to provide economic incentives for their development. In this briefing we review the major aspects of orphan drug legislation and the available incentives in the EU/EEA and UK.
20 September 2021
In order to place a new medicinal product on the market in Europe, it is necessary first to obtain a marketing authorisation. Most applications for marketing authorisations are made through a centralised procedure with the European Medicines Agency (EMA) which effectively leads to authorisation in all EU/EEA member states1, although other routes are available. Regardless of the route, an application for marketing authorisation must be supported by a dossier, referred to at the EMA as the common technical document (CTD), which demonstrates the quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal product. The dossier will include non-clinical pharmacology and toxicology data,...
16 August 2021
When IP-protected goods are placed on a particular market by, or with the consent of, the IP right holder, there is a generally accepted legal concept worldwide that the corresponding IP rights are ‘ exhausted ’ at least in the market in question. This means that the owner of the IP rights cannot subsequently rely on them to prevent the further distribution or resale of those goods within the relevant market.
12 August 2021
It is fairly common at the EPO in the fields of chemistry and biotechnology for applicants/patentees to rely upon data that are not present in the application as filed, and that were generated after the priority/filing date, to support arguments in favour of inventive step. Such data are often referred to as “post-published data”. They are often used to evidence some technical advantage associated with the claimed invention, as compared with disclosures in the prior art. That enables the patentee or applicant to define the “objective technical problem” solved by the claimed invention as that of providing an improved product...
23 June 2021
Crowdfunding can be a great way of raising funds. However, if you fund your business in this way you need to consider carefully how to protect your valuable intellectual property (IP). Crowdfunding involves wide and rapid disclosure of information. This can be beneficial to your business but may also pose some risks to your IP.
04 June 2021
In G 3/14 the EPO Enlarged Board of Appeal ruled on the extent to which amendments made in EPO Opposition (and Opposition Appeal) proceedings may be examined for clarity, conciseness and support (Article 84 EPC). They confirmed that compliance with Article 84 EPC may be examined only when, and to the extent that, the amendment introduces non-compliance with Article 84 EPC. In particular an amendment which introduces the feature of a dependent claim may not be examined for Article 84 where the feature introduced corresponds to the complete dependent claim or is a simple alternative in such a claim.
04 June 2021
It is possible at the EPO to accelerate the search and/or examination of any application using the accelerated prosecution procedure (PACE) 1 . To use the procedure, it is necessary to file a PACE request online using the appropriate form. Other than this, there are no special requirements to qualify for PACE: the request can be filed at any time, no official fee is payable and no special reasons need be given.
04 June 2021
Parameters are generally used in patent claims to define subject matter which cannot be expressed in terms of structural features. They are often relied upon for inventions in the chemical field, but can in fact be used in any technical area. Parameters can relate to features that can be measured directly, such as the density or melting point of a substance; measured indirectly, such as the tacticity of a polymer; or that can be calculated, such as the superficial velocity of a flow in a reactor. They can also be expressed in terms of relationships between such features.
04 June 2021
European Patent Office (EPO) opposition procedure comprises two parts: opposition division (first instance), and, if relevant, appeal. A typical procedure is set out on the attached flow chart. It is also possible to petition the Enlarged Board of Appeal for review of the appeal decision under certain very limited circumstances. There are some fixed time limits in the overall procedure, such as the deadline for filing an opposition and an appeal. However, there is also some flexibility in the procedure. The EPO announced in June 2016 that it aims to issue first instance decisions on “straightforward” oppositions within 15 months....
24 May 2021
Whatever the technology, IP can form a significant intangible asset for a company. In addition to legally protecting the company’s products and activities from being copied by competitors, IP can generate revenue through licensing or sales, it can protect market share and increase return on a company’s R&D investment. IP therefore plays a vital role in establishing the value of a company. When looking to invest in a company that holds IP, a good understanding is needed, not only of what IP a company holds, but how that IP adds value to the company. IP is not just a matter...
05 May 2021
The Enlarged Board of Appeal of the EPO has, in case G 01/19 (Pedestrian simulation), issued a decision regarding the patentability of simulations under the EPC. This decision was eagerly awaited as the referral to the Enlarged Board raised fundamental questions about the patentability of simulations at the EPO. Given that simulations of technical systems had generally been considered patentable with some caveats to be applied on a case by case basis, this decision had the potential to have wide reaching consequences regarding a significant and growing area of innovation in Europe.
03 May 2021
A common misconception is that ownership of IP rights associated with a product gives an automatic right to make and sell that product. However, IP rights such as patent and design rights are best viewed as ‘negative’ rights, which allow the owner to prevent other parties from using the invention, mark or design. They do not provide an automatic right to practice the invention or to use the design.
03 May 2021
With the entry into force of Regulation (EU) 2019/933 on 1 July 2019, the EU introduced a so-called “manufacturing waiver” by amending existing Regulation (EC) 469/2009 concerning supplementary protection certificates (SPCs). Scope of the manufacturing waiver The amendments to the existing SPC Regulation have excluded certain acts from the protection conferred by SPCs. In particular, a third party (referred to as a “maker”) is permitted to manufacture a medicinal product protected by an SPC for the exclusive purpose of export to countries outside the EU 1 .
29 April 2021
The efficacy of PPH varies from territory to territory. In some patent offices there is a history of examination being influenced by the granting of a patent by particular patent offices; PPH may work well for such patent offices. In other patent offices, requesting PPH only results in acceleration and does not guarantee allowance.
29 April 2021
The aim of the Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) is to provide a way for applicants to use positive examination results from one patent office to streamline prosecution in a second patent office. An evolving network of different PPH agreements exists between various patent offices, including most major patent offices. For both the European Patent Office (EPO) and the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) requesting PPH results in acceleration of examination and does not guarantee allowance.
01 April 2021
The UK Intellectual Property Office (UK IPO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) continue to receive reports of applicants and proprietors being approached for payment by firms offering to perform official processing such as registering patents and publishing patent applications. These firms often use names, abbreviations and/or logos which are confusingly similar to those used by official offices such as the UK IPO, the EPO, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
31 March 2021
Obtaining patents for polymorphs can be challenging. However, before the European Patent Office, there is no general rule which makes polymorphs less patentable in principle than other subject matter. With careful drafting and consideration of any specific advantages associated with the polymorph of interest, European patents directed to polymorphs of commercial significance can be obtained. Such patents can act as additional barriers to entry of generic products onto the market, and can thus be very useful in managing the life cycle of a patent estate for pharmaceutical and other biologically active compounds.
08 March 2021
The High Court of England and Wales has recently handed down its judgment in Illumina Cambridge Limited vs Latvia MGI Tech SIA and others. This is one of the last judgments handed down in the High Court by Mr Justice Birss, who was recently elevated to the Court of Appeal. The judgment touches on a number of important aspects of patent infringement and validity, including the first application of the recent Supreme Court decision in Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc vs Kymab Ltd relating to sufficiency. In this briefing we consider four aspects of the judgment: one relating to sufficiency of disclosure, one...
16 February 2021
Before the EPO parameters are defined as features which are based on directly measurable properties or combinations of several variables in the form of formulae. This might be a claim defined by the viscosity of a composition, or the particle size of a powder, for example. Relying on such features to define an invention is commonplace within the chemical sphere and can be very useful. However, their utility is not limited to such subject matter and they could be used to define characteristic features in a broad range of technologies. The EPO has developed a large amount of case law which...
10 February 2021
In our previous discussions of antibody practice at the EPO, we observed that there was a (perhaps surprising) lack of case law to support the evolving practice of the examining divisions. Despite the high number of applications and patents relating to antibodies that have been prosecuted at the EPO more recently (>1000 granted in 2019), the quantity of Board of Appeal decisions concerned with “antibody inventions” remains relatively low. We counted only 21 published decisions in the last 3 years that we considered meet this definition. Each of the 21 decisions arises from an application with a filing date between 1999...
01 February 2021
In the UK, marking patented products as patented is not compulsory. However, there are several benefits to marking products as patented and both guidance from the UK Intellectual Property Office, and UK law, effectively encourage this practice. However it is important for patentees considering marking their products as patented to ensure that this is done correctly because failure to do so can potentially lead to adverse consequences. This briefing provides an overview of patent marking in the UK and some practice points for patentees to bear in mind when considering whether and how to mark their products.
27 January 2021
It does not seem possible to write any review of 2020 without mentioning Covid-19. However in this case we shall limit it to noting that the cancellation of most in-person oral proceedings at the EPO lead to a comparatively low number of published decisions by the electronic and software-focused boards of appeal (247 vs 339 in 2019) and that Board 3.5.03 held the first appeal hearing by video conference in May 2020. Previously only Examining Division Oral Proceedings had been held by video conference and rarely; it will now be quite routine, saving costs for applicants. On substantive issues it was...
24 November 2020
The Technical Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office (EPO) issued its written decision in case T844/18 on 6 November 2020. The central issue was whether the patentees were legally entitled to claim priority. If not, the patent would be invalid for lack of novelty.
28 August 2020
The UK Supreme Court has handed down an important judgment1 which is likely to have global implications for how standard essential patents (SEPs) are licensed in the future. Background A standard essential patent (SEP) is a patent which covers technology which is required (i.e. is essential) to be used in order to implement a technical standard (for example such as 2G, 3G and 4G in the telecommunications industry). Conforming to the technical standard allows devices from different manufacturers to operate together and to use the same infrastructure. Standard Setting Organisations (SSOs) bring participants together to evaluate technologies for inclusion in a new standard....
22 July 2020
The deadline for requesting entry of a PCT application into the European regional phase is 31 months from the filing date or, if priority has been claimed, from the priority date (Rule 159(1) EPC). However, if this deadline is missed, remedies are available that may permit entry into the European regional phase later than this deadline.
10 July 2020
The CJEU issued on 9 July 2020 its judgment in the Santen C-673/18 case. The full text of the judgment can be found here . The Santen decision overturns the earlier Neurim C-130/11 decision, which had held that it is possible under certain circumstances to obtain an SPC for a new therapeutic application of an active ingredient, even if that active ingredient has previously been authorised for other therapeutic applications.
10 June 2020
On 14 May 2020 , the EPO’s enlarged board of appeal issued its decision in case G3/19 (“Pepper”). This derives from a referral made to the enlarged board by the EPO president in April 2019, which aimed at resolving some outstanding questions regarding patent-eligibility of plants under Article 53(b) EPC . Contrary to earlier case law, G3/19 confirms that plants that are the products of essentially biological (i.e. breeding) processes are not patent-eligible.
01 June 2020
What is a patent? A patent is a legal monopoly granted by a government in return for public disclosure of an invention. A granted patent gives the proprietor the right to prevent others using the invention in the territory to which the patent applies. A patent does not, however, give a positive right to use an invention. There may be earlier patents for other inventions that an inventor may need to license to exploit his own invention.
30 April 2020
On 30 April 2020 the CJEU gave its ruling in C-650/17 (Royalty Pharma). The judgment, which is reviewed in detail below, confirms that SPC applications are allowable when the product is not explicitly recited in the claims. However, it is implied that the product will need to be disclosed to a high degree of specificity elsewhere in the patent. The case was previously joined with C-114/18 (Sandoz and Hexal) because both referrals concern the interpretation of Article 3(a) of the SPC Regulation. Article 3(a) requires that: “A[n SPC] shall be granted if… the product is protected by a basic patent in force” However,...
25 March 2020
Patent protection may be obtained in the UK either by filing a European patent application with the European Patent Office and then validating a granted European patent in the UK, or by filing of a UK national patent application with the UK Intellectual Property Office (UK IPO). It is possible to file a UK patent application directly with the UK IPO, with or without a claim to priority from an earlier (e.g. foreign) patent application, or to enter the UK national phase from a PCT application. The official fees payable to the UK IPO for prosecution of a UK national application...
22 January 2020
2019 has been another busy year for the EPO Boards of Appeal covering computer-implemented inventions, although the most significant case has not reached a conclusion. In T 0489/14 (Pedestrian simulation/CONNOR) of 22.2.2019 questions relating to the patentability of simulations and modelling were referred to the Enlarged Board of Appeal, which has not yet set a timetable for a hearing and decision. Although the questions asked are primarily related to the narrow field of simulation of physical systems, it is possible that the answers given could have a broader impact by affecting what is considered technical.
12 November 2019
On 23 October 2019, Kitchin LJ handed down a judgment, available here , which brought to an end a 13-year long dispute between Professor Ian Shanks OBE FRS FREng and Unilever. The case concerns a compensation claim made by Professor Shanks, in connection with several patents owned by Unilever directed towards glucose monitoring devices, for which Professor Shanks was the sole inventor (the “Shanks patents”). Professor Shanks considered that his patents were of outstanding benefit to Unilever and, in accordance with Section 40(1) of the UK Patents Act 1977 (PA ’77), that compensation was due.
08 May 2019
Two recent decisions of an EPO Technical Board of Appeal emphasise the need for a proper technical context to be set out in claims to render an abstract idea patentable. The two appeals, by Ab Initio Technology LLC, related to inventions in the field of parallel processing, a field that seems on the face of it highly technical. However, the inventions were claimed as processes for converting computation graphs into a form better adapted for parallel processes but without specifying any steps of performing any processing, parallel or otherwise. At this level of generality the Board considered the inventions to...
13 February 2019
This briefing explores the options available to applicants in the event that the deadline for filing a PCT has been missed. In this context we refer to the deadline for filing a PCT application that is set by the twelve month deadline for claiming priority under the Paris Convention. A successful claim to priority may be important, particularly if the applicant has disclosed their invention after filing their first application and wishes to proceed with national and/or regional phases in which no grace period is provided for disclosures by the inventor/applicant.
13 February 2019
Re-establishment of rights under Article 122 EPC may be used to recover rights lost as a result of missing a deadline set by the European Patent Office. The requirements of this provision are shared with a number of restoration systems worldwide. There is much variation from regime to regime. However, the European Patent Office approach is well established, with a history of case law that makes it clear what is needed to successfully recover rights in Europe.
13 February 2019
The central issue when seeking restoration or re-establishment of rights in many countries is establishing that due care was taken. This is certainly true of cases before the European Patent Office. This paper reviews what issues may need to be addressed in order to demonstrate due care to the European Patent Office when preparing grounds for re-establishment of rights. Other offices, such as the International Bureau, follow a similar approach to the European Patent Office.
31 January 2019
2018 has been a year of increased productivity for at least those Boards of Appeal that cover software inventions (Boards 3.5.01 and 3.5.03 to 3.5.06). In particular Board 3.5.01 has returned to a similar level of productivity as the other Boards now that it has a Chairman. The main controversies continue to be the proper treatment of mixed inventions (those involving non-technical aims or features as well as technical ones) and how to determine what is and is not technical.
04 December 2018
The Supreme Court in the UK handed down its decision in Warner-Lambert v Actavis on 14th November 2018 (and a copy of the complete decision is available here ). The Supreme Court considered the following issues in its judgment: how much data is required in the application as originally filed to support a second medical use claim; and the circumstances under which “cross label use” for the patented indication of a drug sold by a competitor company can constitute infringement of a second medical use claim.
19 October 2018
This is the fourth year in a row that sections of the EPO guidelines for examiners relating to computer implemented inventions (CII) have been significantly amended. These amendments have come about as a result of a project within the EPO to harmonise the treatment of inventions involving computers and software across all examining divisions. In the EPO, inventions not relating to computer science per se are handled in various examining divisions according to the function performed by the computer and its software. Thus, significant variation in practice had arisen between different examining divisions. This year’s set of amendments is the...
06 July 2018
A patent that has been granted by the European Patent Office may subsequently be made effective in any of the countries for which a designation, extension or validation fee has been paid. This process is commonly known as “validation” of the European patent. Some countries impose translation requirements as part of the validation procedure. In general, any required translations must be submitted within three months of the grant date of the patent.
14 June 2018
The EPO has long adopted an approach to consideration of inventive step known as the problem and solution approach. Although this approach is fundamentally the same across most technical areas, special considerations apply for software related inventions. Firstly, the EPO looks for an invention to be the technical solution to a technical problem and so disregards non-technical aims/features, which are common in software fields. Secondly, the EPO Boards of Appeal often have quite high expectations of the capabilities of the ordinary person skilled in the art and thus a high threshold for inventive step. We discuss these issues below with...
05 March 2018
Claiming small entity status on a US application or patent provides a reduction in official fees. Most fees (e.g. basic filing fee, examination fee, search fee, etc.) are reduced by 50%, so the saving is significant. There are some risks but these may be mitigated. Where available, small entity status is attractive to many applicants.
17 January 2018
2017 was a year of change for the Boards of Appeal of the EPO: a new President 1 and a move out of the EPO’s oldest building in the centre of Munich to a suburb, Haar. There has been some recruitment, but overall it appears there are still many vacancies on various Boards. Overall the relevant Boards issued 10% more decisions than in 2016 and Board 3.5.01 in particular has significantly increased its output in the latter part of the year as it now has a chairman.
10 January 2018
The European Patent Office (EPO) uses the term “ disclaimer ” to refer to a negative feature in a claim of a patent application. Negative features are those which exclude certain subject matter from the scope of protection. While a positive feature in a claim may for instance take the form “ wherein the composition comprises X ”, a disclaimer would take the form “ wherein the composition does not comprise X ”.
14 December 2017
Since the UK Court of Appeal judgment in Menashe v William Hill, it has not been safe to assume that infringement of a patent claim including a processor or a processing step can be avoided by performing the processing on a server outside the UK. A third judgement on this topic has recently been issued – making the score two for infringement and one for non-infringement – so it is instructive to consider what factors affect a finding of infringement. We review the relevant points of the three cases and draw some practical conclusions.
14 November 2017
In May 2017, we reported on two “CardinalCommerce” decisions 1 by EPO Technical Board of Appeal 3.5.01 that introduced the concept of a “notional business person” into in the examination of mixed inventions (inventions including both technical and non-technical features). A new decision by the same Board ( T0630/11/Waterleaf ) provides some clarification of this approach, warning against over limiting what the notional business person can do and perhaps limiting the utility of the CardinalCommerce to applicants seeking to patent mixed inventions.
21 July 2017
The UK Supreme Court’s judgment in Lilly v Actavis has profound implications for the scope of protection provided by patent claims in the UK. The judgment moves away from the principle that the patentee should enjoy the full extent, but no more than the full extent, of the monopoly that a reasonable person skilled in the art, reading the claims in context, would think he was intending to claim. Rather, following this new decision, a patent claim in the UK can be infringed by products or processes that are not within the ambit of the language used in the claims.
31 May 2017
The software industry has been a major beneficiary of the R&D tax credit regime in the UK. Although more obviously suited to the manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries, the software industry can also benefit from UK Patent Box legislation. One aim of the Patent Box legislation is to provide an additional incentive to locate in the UK high-value jobs associated with the development and exploitation of patented technologies. To achieve this the Patent Box legislation allows companies to pay a lower rate of UK corporation tax for profit attributable to qualifying patented technology.
29 May 2017
Intellectual property (IP) rights are legal rights which provide protection for your innovative and creative endeavour. For example, IP could relate to something that you have created, such as a brand, an invention or a design, or could relate to information that you have developed or collated. When people talk about IP, they usually mean IP that can be registered: trade marks, patents and designs. However some IP rights arise automatically (so-called unregistered rights), such as copyright and unregistered designs. Each form of IP right has a different purpose in protecting a different aspect of your work and can be...
12 May 2017
When seeking patent protection, most companies start with a single national patent application but may then wish to seek protection in other countries. This briefing outlines points to consider in selecting the countries to cover, the international schemes available and the timing of the decisions to be taken. There are several advantages to filing a UK application first, even if you are not UK based. The UK Intellectual Property Office carries out searches quickly and cheaply; this can give you an indication of the patentability of your invention before you incur the costs of filing in other countries. UK applications must...
03 May 2017
In two Decisions published on 27 April 2017, EPO Technical Board of Appeal 3.5.01 has given valuable guidance on the treatment of inventions that implement business methods and given rare positive verdicts on two related applications. In the process, the Board has introduced the "notional business person" whose hypothetical actions need to be considered alongside the venerable "person skilled in the [technical] art".
04 April 2017
You have a new technical idea. When will you be ready to draft a patent specification? When will it be appropriate to file an initial application at the Patent Office? Are there any potential issues with filing an application early and making a follow-up application later? This Briefing sets out some of the factors to consider in addressing such questions.
01 April 2017
The Supreme Court, the highest Court for England and Wales, has given guidance as to considerations to take into account when deciding whether an activity can be regarded as “making” a patented product and thus infringing a patent. This Decision has relevance for activities including reconditioning and repairing of patented articles and for sale of spare parts and even consumables of larger patented articles. The Decision makes it clear that the question of whether an activity is “making” is “one of fact and degree”. The Decision concludes that there are no fixed principles nor any single simple test to assess what constitutes...
01 February 2017
In decision G 1/151, the EPO’s Enlarged Board of Appeal ruled that an entitlement to partial priority arises for a generic claim in a European patent application in respect of subject-matter, disclosed in the priority filing, that is encompassed by the generic claim. The Enlarged Board's conclusions prevent so-called "poisonous divisional" attacks, as well as the possibility of "self-collision" with the priority application, provided that the claims of the priority-claiming European application contain exclusively broadening amendments compared with the disclosure in the priority filing. However, the wider reasoning in the decision emphasises the continuing importance of carefully drafting both priority applications...
02 January 2017
Notwithstanding surprising electoral developments in the UK and the US, 2016 was a continuation of business as usual for the Boards of Appeal of the EPO at least in relation to computer-implemented inventions. The Boards continued to apply the “Comvik” approach to examining mixed inventions, that is inventions involving both technical and non-technical features, but still did not offer any definition of what is and is not technical. Backlogs appear to have risen, due no doubt to the freeze on recruitment of Board members and consequent vacancies. This article discusses some statistics from 2016 of the various Boards of Appeal...
29 June 2016
Since April 2014, it has been possible to file multiple divisional applications from any European patent application pending at the European Patent Office (EPO). Divisional applications can be filed from a European application which is itself a divisional application. Further, the EPO’s rules on double patenting are relatively liberal1. In some cases, Applicants have used these rules to file multiple divisional applications with similar claims. These divisional applications can then be kept pending at the EPO while challenges to the parent patent are determined in EPO opposition proceedings and/or in national litigation. If the parent patent is revoked, or is found...
19 May 2016
In the 2016 decision T 2440/12-Fluid flow simulation/SIMCON, Technical Board of Appeal 3.5.07 has found that a commercially available software package makes the methods it embodies available to the public because it could be run line-byline in a virtual machine (VM).
28 January 2016
In 2015 the Boards of Appeal of the EPO continued to develop the “Comvik” approach to examining mixed inventions, that is inventions involving both technical and non-technical features, but again declined to define what is and is not technical. This article discusses some statistics from 2015 of the various Boards of Appeal that consider software inventions and some interesting or notable decisions.
24 September 2015
Third party patents can represent significant obstacles to achieving a commercial goal. The opposition procedure at the European Patent Office (EPO), if used successfully, can provide a cost-efficient mechanism for removing or limiting a troublesome patent. As a general rule, it is relatively cheap compared to national litigation and the centralised procedure means that revocation or limitation of a European patent in the opposition procedure applies in all of the validation states. However, EPO oppositions are often slow, in particular when the appeal stage is taken into account.
03 September 2015
The UK Patents Act was amended on 1 October 2014 to clarify the extent to which conducting clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of a patented drug can constitute patent infringement. This briefing contains a discussion of the amendments and of the situation before the future European Unitary Patent Court (UPC).
05 March 2014
Section 7(2) of the Indian Patents Act requires that when an application is made “by virtue of an assignment of the right to apply for a patent for the invention” , then it is necessary to file “proof of the right to make the application” . The so-called “proof of right” is normally a “Form 1” signed by the applicant and the inventors. Alternatively, a certified/notarised copy of an assignment of rights in the invention in India from the inventors to the applicant can be filed in place of a “Form 1”.
18 November 2013
Many countries have provisions which allow for compulsory licences to be granted under exceptional circumstances. However, in recent years, these provisions have only rarely, if ever, been used.
19 September 2013
In its decision in Generics (Mylan) V Yeda & Teva, the UK Court of Appeal considered the extent to which subsequent evidence can be relied upon for the determination of inventive step. The Court closely followed the approach adopted by the EPO to the consideration of such evidence. The decision provides a useful summary of the manner in which the technical contribution provided by a patent is assessed.
18 September 2013
Transforming research carried out in institutions such as universities and hospitals into commercial products and services can be a long and complex journey, but the results can provide significant income for the institutions involved, as well as improving the lives and prosperity of the public. IP often plays a central role in the success or failure of a project. It is crucially important to adopt the right strategies, both in terms of how an IP portfolio is grown and how it is used.
16 August 2013
Article 53(c) EPC specifies a number of exceptions to patentability in the field of medicine, including “ methods for the treatment of the human or animal body by surgery ”. These exceptions to patentability were included in the EPC on socio-ethical and public health grounds to ensure that medical and veterinary practitioners remain free to take any action necessary to treat or diagnose illnesses.
12 March 2012
After your patent application has been filed at one (or more) of the many Patent Offices around the world, it will be processed by that Patent Office. This is known as the patent “prosecution” process. This Briefing provides an overview of what to expect. However there are many local differences to take into account. The law and practice that govern the details of the procedures followed by the Patent Office vary widely from country to country. The cost involved and the time taken to process applications also vary from country to country, and indeed from case to case.